It’s possible to extend RuboCop with custom (third-party) cops and formatters.

Loading Extensions

Besides the --require command line option you can also specify ruby files that should be loaded with the optional require directive in the .rubocop.yml file:

 - ../my/custom/file.rb
 - rubocop-extension
The paths are directly passed to Kernel.require. If your extension file is not in $LOAD_PATH, you need to specify the path as relative path prefixed with ./ explicitly or absolute path. Paths starting with a . are resolved relative to .rubocop.yml. If a path containing - is given, it will be used as is, but if we cannot find the file to load, we will replace - with / and try it again as when Bundler loads gems.

Extension Suggestions

Depending on what gems you have in your bundle, RuboCop might suggest extensions that can be added to provide further functionality. For instance, if you are using rspec without the corresponding rubocop-rspec extension, RuboCop will suggest enabling it.

This message can be disabled by adding the following to your configuration:

  SuggestExtensions: false

Suggest default extensions if SuggestExtensions: true.

You can also opt-out of suggestions for a particular extension library as so (unspecified extensions will continue to be notified, as appropriate):

    rubocop-rake: false

Custom Cops

You can configure the custom cops in your .rubocop.yml just like any other cop.

Writing your own Cops

If you’d like to create an extension gem, you can use rubocop-extension-generator.

See development to learn how to implement a cop.

Cop Extensions

The main RuboCop gem focuses on the core Ruby language and doesn’t include functionality related to any external Ruby libraries/frameworks. There are, however, many RuboCop extensions dedicated to those and a few of them are maintained by RuboCop’s Core Team.

Official Extensions

Third-party Extensions

Any extensions missing? Send us a Pull Request!

Configuring an Extension

If you’re writing an extension, you can tie some of its configuration into RuboCop.

Config Obsoletions

When a cop that has been released is later renamed or removed, or one of its parameters is, RuboCop can output error messages letting users know to update their configuration to the newest values. If any obsolete configurations are encountered, RuboCop will output an error message and quit.

You can tie your extension into this system by creating your own obsoletions.yml file and letting RuboCop know where to find it:

RuboCop::ConfigObsoletion.files << File.expand_path(filename)

There are currently three types of obsoletions that can be defined for cops:

  • renamed: A cop was changed to have a new name, or moved to a different department.

  • removed: A cop was deleted (usually this is configured with alternatives or a reason why it was removed).

  • split: A cop was removed and replaced with multiple other cops.

Two additional types are available to be defined for parameter changes. These configurations can apply to multiple cops and multiple parameters at the same time (so are expressed in YAML as an array of hashes):

  • changed_parameters: A parameter has been renamed.

  • changed_enforced_styles: A previously accepted EnforcedStyle value has been changed or removed.

Parameter obsoletions can be set with severity: warning to deprecate an old parameter but still accept it. RuboCop will output a warning but continue to run.

Example Obsoletion Configuration

See config/obsoletion.yml for more examples.

All plural keys (eg. cops, parameters, alternatives, etc.) can either take a single value or an array.
  Layout/AlignArguments: Layout/ArgumentAlignment
  Lint/BlockAlignment: Layout/BlockAlignment

    alternatives: Layout/SpaceAroundKeyword
    reason: it was never being actually triggered

      - Style/MethodMissingSuper
      - Style/MissingRespondToMissing

changed_parameters: # must be an array of hashes
  - cops:
      - Metrics/BlockLength
      - Metrics/MethodLength
    parameters: ExcludedMethods
    alternative: IgnoredMethods
    severity: warning

changed_enforced_styles: # must be an array of hashes
  - cops: Layout/IndentationConsistency
    parameters: EnforcedStyle
    value: rails
    reason: >
      `EnforcedStyle: rails` has been renamed to
      `EnforcedStyle: indented_internal_methods`

Custom Formatters

You can customize RuboCop’s output format with custom formatters.

Creating a Custom Formatter

To implement a custom formatter, you need to subclass RuboCop::Formatter::BaseFormatter and override some methods, or implement all formatter API methods by duck typing.

Please see the documents below for more formatter API details.

Using a Custom Formatter from the Command Line

You can tell RuboCop to use your custom formatter with a combination of --format and --require option. For example, when you have defined MyCustomFormatter in ./path/to/my_custom_formatter.rb, you would type this command:

$ rubocop --require ./path/to/my_custom_formatter --format MyCustomFormatter

Template support

RuboCop has API for extensions to support templates such as ERB, Haml, Slim, etc.

Normally, RuboCop extracts one Ruby code from one Ruby file, however there are multiple embedded Ruby codes in one template file. To solve this problem, RuboCop has a mechanism called Rubocop::Runner.ruby_extractors, to which any Ruby extractor can be added on the extension side.

Ruby extractor must be a callable object that takes a RuboCop::ProcessedSource and returns an Array of Hash that contains Ruby source codes and their offsets from original source code, or returns nil for unrelated file.


An example returned value from a Ruby extractor would be as follows:

    offset: 2,
    processed_source: #<RuboCop::ProcessedSource>
    offset: 10,
    processed_source: #<RuboCop::ProcessedSource>

On the extension side, the code would be something like this:


RuboCop::Runners.ruby_extractors is processed from the beginning and ends when one of them returns a non-nil value. By default, there is a Ruby extractor that returns the given Ruby source code with offset 0, so you can unshift any Ruby extractor before it.

This is still an experimental feature and may change in the future.