Node Pattern

Node pattern is a DSL to help find specific nodes in the Abstract Syntax Tree using a simple string.

It reminds the simplicity of regular expressions but used to find specific nodes of Ruby code.


The Node Pattern was introduced by Alex Dowad and solves a problem that RuboCop contributors were facing for a long time:

  • Ability to declaratively define rules for node search, matching, and capture.

The code below belongs to Style/ArrayJoin cop and it’s in favor of Array#join over Array#*. Then it tries to find code like %w(one two three) * ", " and suggest to use #join instead.

It can also be an array of integers, and the code doesn’t check it. However, it checks if the argument sent is a string.

def on_send(node)
  receiver_node, method_name, *arg_nodes = *node
  return unless receiver_node && receiver_node.array_type? &&
    method_name == :* && arg_nodes.first.str_type?

  add_offense(node, location: :selector)

This code was replaced in the cop defining a new matcher that does the same as the code above:

def_node_matcher :join_candidate?, '(send $array :* $str)'

And the on_send method is simplified to a method usage:

def on_send(node)
  join_candidate?(node) { add_offense(node, location: :selector) }

( and ) Navigate deeply with Parens

Parens delimits navigation inside node and its children.

A simple integer like 1 is represented by (int 1) in the AST.

$ ruby-parse -e '1'
(int 1)
  • int will match exactly the node, looking only the node type.

  • (int 1) will match precisely the node

_ for any single node

_ will check if there’s something present in the specific position, no matter the value:

  • (int _) will match any number

  • (int _ _) will not match because int types have just one child that contains the value.

... for several subsequent nodes

Where _ matches any single node, ... matches any number of nodes.

Say for example you want to find instances of calls to the method sum with any number of arguments, be it sum(1, 2) or sum(1, 2, 3, n). First, let’s check how it looks like in the AST:

$ ruby-parse -e 'sum(1, 2)'
(send nil :sum
  (int 1)
  (int 2))

Or with more children:

$ ruby-parse -e 'sum(1, 2, 3, n)'
(send nil :sum
  (int 1)
  (int 2)
  (int 3)
  (send nil :n))

The following expression would only match a call with 2 arguments:

(send nil? :sum _ _)

Instead, the following expression will any number of arguments (and thus both examples above):

(send nil? :sum ...)

Note that ... can be appear anywhere in a sequence, for example (send nil? :sum ... int) would no longer match the second example, as the last argument is not an integer.

Nesting ... is also supported; the only limitation is that ... and other "variable length" patterns can only appear once within a sequence. For example (send ... :sum ...) is not supported.

*, +, ? for repetitions

Another way to handle a variable number of nodes is by using *, +, ? to signify a particular pattern should match any number of times, at least once and at most once respectively.

Following on the previous example, to find sums of integer literals, we could use:

(send nil? :sum int*)

This would match our first example sum(1, 2) but not the other sum(1, 2, 3, n)

This pattern would also match a call to sum without any argument, which might not be desirable.

Using + would insure that only sums with at least one argument would be matched.

(send nil? :sum int+)

The ? can limit the match only 0 or 1 nodes. The following example would match any sum of three integer literals optionally followed by a method call:

(send nil? :sum int int int send ?)

Note that we have to put a space between send and ?, since send? would be considered as a predicate (described below).

<> for match in any order

You may not care about the exact order of the nodes you want to match. In this case you can put the nodes without brackets:

(send nil? :sum <(int 2) int>)

This will match our first example (sum(1, 2)).

It won’t match our second example though, as it specifies that there must be exactly two arguments to the method call sum.

You can add ... before the closing bracket to allow for additional parameters:

(send nil? :sum <(int 2) int ...>)

This will match both our examples, but not sum(1.0, 2) or sum(2), since the first node in the brackets is found, but not the second (int).

{} for "OR" (union)

Lets make it a bit more complex and introduce floats:

$ ruby-parse -e '1'
(int 1)
$ ruby-parse -e '1.0'
(float 1.0)
  • ({int | float} _) - int or float types, no matter the value

Branches of the union can contain more than one term:

  • (array {int int | range}) - matches an array with two integers or a single range element

If all the branches have a single term, you can omit the |, so {int | float} can be simplified to {int float}.

When checking for symbols or string, you can use regexp literals for a similar effect:

(send _ /to_s|inspect/) # => matches calls to `to_s` or `inspect`

[] for "AND"

Imagine you want to check if the number is odd? and also positive numbers:

(int [odd? positive?]) - is an int and the value should be odd and positive.

$ for captures

You can capture elements or nodes along with your search, prefixing the expression with $. For example, in a tuple like (int 1), you can capture the value using (int $_).

You can also capture multiple things like:

(${int float} $_)

The tuple can be entirely captured using the $ before the open parens:

$({int float} _)

Or remove the parens and match directly from node head:

${int float}

All variable length patterns (..., *, +, ?, <>) are captured as arrays.

The following pattern will have two captures, both arrays:

(send nil? $int+ (send $...))

^ for parent

One may use the ^ character to check against a parent.

For example, the following pattern would find any node with two children and with a parent that is a hash:

(^hash _key $_value)

It is possible to use ^ somewhere else than the head of a sequnece; in that case it is relative to that child (i.e. the current node). One case also use multiple ^ to go up multiple levels. For example, the previous example is basically the same as:

(pair ^^hash $_value)

` for descendants

The ` character can be used to search a node and all its descendants. For example if looking for a return statement anywhere within a method definition, we can write:

(def _method_name _args `return)

This would match both of these methods foo and bar, even though these return for foo and bar are not at the same level.

def foo              # (def :foo
  return 42          #   (args)
end                  #   (return
                     #     (int 42)))

def bar              # (def :bar
  return 42 if foo   #   (args)
  nil                #   (begin
end                  #     (if
                     #       (send nil :foo)
                     #       (return
                     #         (int 42)) nil)
                     #     (nil)))

Predicate methods

Words which end with a ? are predicate methods, are called on the target to see if it matches any Ruby method which the matched object supports can be used.


  • int_type? can be used herein replacement of (int _).

And refactoring the expression to allow both int or float types:

  • {int_type? float_type?} can be used herein replacement of ({int float} _)

You can also use it at the node level, asking for each child:

  • (int odd?) will match only with odd numbers, asking it to the current number.

# to call functions

Sometimes, we want to add extra logic. Let’s imagine we’re searching for prime numbers, so we have a method to detect it:

def prime?(n)
  if n <= 1
  elsif n == 2
    (2..n/2).none? { |i| n % i == 0 }

We can use the #prime? function directly in the expression:

(int #prime?)

You may call a method on a constant too. Let’s say you define:


module Util
  def self.palindrome?(str)
    str == str.reverse

You can refer to it like this:

(str #Util.palindrome?)

Arguments for predicate and function calls

Arguments can be passed to predicates and function calls, like literals, parameters:

def divisible_by?(value, divisor)
  value % divisor == 0

Example patterns using this function:

(int #divisible_by?(42))
(send (int _value) :+ (int #divisible_by?(_value))

The arguments can be pattern themselves, in which case a matcher responding to === will be passed. This makes patterns composable:

def_node_matcher :global_const?, '(const {nil? cbase} %1)'
def_node_matcher :class_creator, '(send #global_const?({:Class :Module}) :new ...)'

Using node matcher macros

The RuboCop base includes two useful methods to use the node pattern with Ruby in a simple way. You can use the macros to define methods. The basics are def_node_matcher and def_node_search.

When you define a pattern, it creates a method that accepts a node and tries to match.

Lets create an example where we’re trying to find the symbols user and current_user in expressions like: user: current_user or current_user: User.first, so the objective here is pick all keys:

$ ruby-parse -e ':current_user'
(sym :current_user)
$ ruby-parse -e ':user'
(sym :user)
$ ruby-parse -e '{ user: current_user }'
    (sym :user)
    (send nil :current_user)))

Our minimal matcher can get it in the simple node sym:

def_node_matcher :user_symbol?, '(sym {:current_user :user})'

Composing complex expressions with multiple matchers

Now let’s go deeply combining the previous expression and also match if the current symbol is being called from an initialization method, like:

$ ruby-parse -e ' current_user)'
  (const nil :Comment) :new
      (sym :user)
      (send nil :current_user))))

And we can also reuse this and check if it’s a constructor:

def_node_matcher :initializing_with_user?, <<~PATTERN
  (send _ :new (hash (pair #user_symbol?)))

% for arguments

Arguments can be passed to matchers, either as external method arguments, or to be used to compare elements. An example of method argument:

def multiple_of?(n, factor)
  n % factor == 0

def_node_matcher :int_node_multiple?, '(int #multiple_of?(%1))'

# ...

int_node_multiple?(node, 10) # => true if node is an 'int' node with a multiple of 10

Arguments can be used to match nodes directly:

def_node_matcher :has_sensitive_data?, '(hash <(pair (_ %1) $_) ...>)'

# ...

has_sensitive_data?(node, :password) # => true if node is a hash with a key +:password+

# matching uses ===, so to match strings or symbols, 'pass' or 'password' one can:
has_sensitive_data?(node, /^pass(word)?$/i)

# one can also pass lambdas...
has_sensitive_data?(node, ->(key) { # return true or false depending on key })
Array#=== will never match a single node element (so don’t pass arrays), but Set#=== is an alias to Set#include? (Ruby 2.5+ only), and so can be very useful to match within many possible literals / Nodes.

%param_name for named parameters

Arguments can be passed as named parameters. They will be matched using === (see % above).

Contrary to positional arguments, defaults values can be passed to def_node_matcher and def_node_search:

def_node_matcher :interesting_call?, '(send _ %method ...)',
                 method: Set[:transform_values, :transform_keys,
                             :transform_values!, :transform_keys!,

# Usage:

interesting_call?(node) # use the default methods
interesting_call?(node, method: /^transform/) # match anything starting with 'transform'

Named parameters as arguments to custom methods are also supported.

CONST or %CONST for constants

Constants can be included in patterns. They will be matched using ===, so Regexp / Set / Proc can be used in addition to literals and Nodes:

SOME_CALLS = Set[:transform_values, :transform_keys,
                 :transform_values!, :transform_keys!,

def_node_matcher :interesting_call?, '(send _ SOME_CALLS ...)'

Constants as arguments to custom methods are also supported.


You may have comments in node patterns at the end of lines by preceding them with '# ':

def_node_matcher :complex_stuff, <<~PATTERN
    {#global_const?(:Kernel) nil?}  # check for explicit call like Kernel.p too
    {:p :pp}                        # let's consider `pp` also
    $...                            # capture all arguments

nil or nil?

Take a special attention to nil behavior:

$ ruby-parse -e 'nil'

In this case, the nil implicit matches with expressions like: nil, (nil), or nil_type?.

But, nil is also used to represent a call from nothing from a simple method call:

$ ruby-parse -e 'method'
(send nil :method)

Then, for such case you can use the predicate nil?. And the code can be matched with an expression like:

(send nil? :method)

More resources

Curious about how it works?

Check more details in the documentation or browse the source code directly. It’s easy to read and hack on.

The specs are also very useful to comprehend each feature.